Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Elements of Design


  • Design refers to a plan or a skill full way of doing a sketch or drawing which is visualized and then represented for the construction of an object.

Elements of design

  • Design elements are the basic units of a visual image.
  • Line, Colour, Texture, Shape, and Form are the elements of design.

  • Lines have several aspects including direction, thickness, sharpness, and length. There are two types of lines
  • Straight lines (vertical, horizontal, diagonal, zigzag), Curved lines.

Straight lines

  • They are opposite to curved lines they are rigid and crisp.
  • Each direction are straight lines creates an optical illusion.

Vertical lines

  • They generally add height or length to the body and make it look more narrow.
  • It is a favored line direction for those who wish to look taller.
  • Vertical lines repeated can add width. Closely spaced parallel vertical lines may lead the eye in upward direction. But if the space gets increased the eye may begin to measure the width.

Horizontal lines

  • They generally add width and shorten the body. They can attract attention towards one part of the body.
  • They carry the eye across the body. Horizontal lines by spacing can produce the illusion of length.

Diagonal lines

  • They always shows a movement or motion. They are slimming because they direct the eye over body curves at an angle.

Zigzag lines

  • It is a series of connecting diagonal lines. It forces the eye to shift abruptly and repeatedly. They tend to increase the size of the area covered by them.

Curved lines

  • Curves are graceful, flowing, gentle. It attracts attention and soften the area. It can even add weight to a thin person.


  • By passing light through a prism that refracted or bent the light rays into a spectrum of colours.
  • Colour is contained in light and it does not exist in the absence of light.

Primary Colours

  • The three primary colours are red, yellow and blue. These are the base.

Secondary Colours

  • Mix two primary colours together and you’ll get a secondary colour.

Tertiary Colours

  • Mix together a primary and a secondary and you’ll end up with a tertiary colour


  • It is a feel of a surface.
  • There are two types of texture
  • Visual and Tactile.

Visual texture

  • It is the way the surface of an object looks like it feels.
  • It may look rough, fizzy, but cannot actually be felt.
  • Example: ply wood.

Tactile textures

  • It is the way the surface of an object actually feels.
  • Example: sand paper, tree bark.


  • It is a self contained defined area of geometric or organic form.
  • A positive shape in a painting automatically forms a negative space.
  • It can also show perspective by overlapping.


  • It is a three dimensional object.
  • It can be measured by its height, width, and depth.
  • It is also defined by light and dark.
  • There are two types of forms geometric and natural.

Principles of design

  • The principle of design (i.e. the unique arrangement of the element) is based on some aesthetic system.
  • The principles of design govern the relationships of the elements used and organize the composition as a whole.
  • The principles of design consist of:
  • Balance, harmony, emphasis, proportion, rhythm.


  • It can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical.
  • It can be achieved by the location of object, volume or size and also by colours.


  • Harmony is achieved through the sensitive balance of variety and unity.
  • Color harmony may be achieved using complementary or analogous colors.
  • Harmony may be visually pleasing and harmony is when some of the objects like drapes.


  • It is dominance or a concentration of interest in one area of a design as the centre of attention.

  • Proportion is the design principle concerned with the relation of the size of the part to the whole and to each other.
  • It includes height, width, depth, and the surrounding space of each design.


  • It is a pleasing sense of organized movement that gives continuity to a design.
  • Without rhythm a design may appear spotty or disconnected.
  • It is also seen in the progression, gradation, or orderly sequence of gradually increasing or decreasing changes in sizes of elements or image.


  1. Thank so much I HV read all the article and I liked it so much..gud jib

  2. A very useful and clear explanation for all design students - thanks

  3. A very useful and clear explanation for all design students - thanks

  4. Nevertheless this is justified as not everyone is a Garment technologist nor does he or she need to be. knit fabrics

  5. Nice blog.Interesting post. I work out almost everyday too. Really enjoyed this article too. Color matching cabinet